The Nile River was the point of concentration of ancient Egypt. The Egyptian civilization started sometime during the 3150 BC and flourished over the following three millennia. The civilization’s history is divided into a number of Kingdoms. When the New Kingdom ended, foreign powers’ succession conquered the civilization. The pharaohs’ dynamic rule ended officially in 31 BC. During the civilization, Egyptians controlled the irrigation of fertile valley as well as produced surplus crops. This occurrence led to the cultural and social development of the land. The valley’s mineral exploitation was sponsored by the administration which is regarded with the first development of a writing system.
During the Egyptian civilization, organization of extensive trade and collective agricultural projects took place. The military forces of Egypt defeated invaders from foreign countries and were able to maintain Egyptian dominance by bureaucratizing religious leaders, administrators and scribes under the pharaoh’s control. They are credited with some achievements including a system of special construction and quarrying techniques, and mathematics. All of these are mirrored by the pyramids, obelisks and temples of Egypt. Other advancements include agricultural production strategies, glass technology, irrigation systems and effective medicine. The Nile River serves as the lifeline of this country and its fertile floodplain helped many settlers develop a stable agricultural industry and centralized society.
By around 5500 BC, a series of extraordinary cultures was identified through personal and pottery items. Merimda was among ancient Egypt’s largest northern communities. The lithic culture and technology of this community are characterized by stone maceheads, vases, ladles and right stands. Many of these discovered items are displayed in many different museums. Badari was ancient Egypt’s earliest southern community. This community is popular for its earliest use of stone tools and copper, and high quality ceramics. The unearthed Badarian burials indicate that people were once controlled by powerful leaders. This theory is reflected on the graves’ social stratification designs.